JACKFRUIT CULTIVATION BY GRAFTING
- A. Background of the Problem
There are two kinds in Cultivating plants, which are natural vegetative and vegetative artificial (Wikipedia). However, in my research paper I choose the topic about artificial vegetative, because most of farmers choose artificial vegetative. We know fours kind of artificial vegetative, such as grafts, occulation, connecting, bowing. Graft is a vegetative proliferation by using parts of plants . Mesh and often done because all plants can bear fruit in Grafting. And also tools and media to transplant easily to (interview). Therefore, the grafting does not require much cost.
Grafted plants have advantages and disadvantages. Those advantages are grafted plants grow fruit more quickly and have characteristics same to their parent (an interview with pasir mukti), and grow faster than plants grown from seed. but , they are more easily fall. Grafted plants grow in 4-5 years.
What I want to discuss is about grafting Jackfruit. Grafting jackfruit is by slicing the stem part of the floes, while his part of xylem not sliced. And we must clean the Remaining of the cambium. If not, then on the spot, will grow new skin.
And the one of the popular fruit name is Jackfruit. Jackfruit is the name of the fruit as well as plants. Jackfruit known to mature at the time of fruit maturity. The fruit is widely used for dishes such as diamond jackfruit curry, . Also as a source carbohydrate besides rice. Ripen fruits contribute significantly to the nutrition as a source of carbohydrates, minerals and b-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A. The juicy pulp is eaten fresh or preserved in syrup and has wide potential for preparing jam, jelly etc. In eastern India, tender fruit is popular as vegetable. Seeds of jackfruit can be used in many culinary preparations as boiled or roasted item. The pulp can also be used in preparation of pickles, chips, de-hydrated leather and thin papad. The rind is rich in protein and major protein has been extracted as“jacalin”. Jack timber is valuable for making furnitures as it is rarely attacked by white ants.
B. Identification of problem
Based on the Background of the problem above problems that have been identified are as follows:
1. What is grafting?
2. Why grafting is mostly done in people?
3. What are the advantages of grafting?
4. Why are grafted plants more vulnerable?
5. What kind of artificial vegetative proliferation?
6. How to cultivate jackfruit with grafting?
C. Limitation of Problem
In order for this discussion can be done more carefully, then the problem is limited research on the second and sixth points above identification problem, namely:
1. Grafting is often done
2. How to cultivate jackfruit by grafting
D. Formulation of the problem
Based on background, identification, and limitation of the problem above, the formulation of this study is:
1. Why grafting is often done?
2. How to cultivate jackfruit with grafting?
E. The purpose of the study
This study aims to:
1. To understand the reason so many people to transplant
2. To learn how to cultivate jackfruit by grafting
F. Benefits of research
The benefits of this research are:
1.Known the advantages and disadvantages of grafting
2. Known how to cultivate plants that are relatively inexpensive.
- A. Theoretical framework
Grafting is the rapid way to multiply plants. Grafting does not require many time and cost. Grafting is often performed to obtain plants that have same characteristics as the parent. Grafting has some advantages disadvantages. There are:
Advantages of Grafting
Disadvantages of Grafting
Very vulnerable and easily fall
Has the same character as the parents
Very vulnerable to diseases
The tree is not tall
Cannot be done many times
Plant multiplication divides into 2 ways. Those are generative and vegetative ways.
Generative multiplication way:
Vegetative multiplication way:
- ArtificialSimakBaca secara fonetik
Baca secara fonetik
Jack fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus). belonging to the family Moraceae, is a fairly large sized tree bearing largest fruit among edible known fruits. It is native to western ghats of India and also popular fruit in several tropical and sub-tropical countries. It is
regarded as “poor man’s fruit” in eastern and southern parts of India.
Ripen fruits contribute significantly to the nutrition as a source of carbohydrates,
minerals and a precursor of vitamin A. The juicy pulp is eaten fresh or preserved
in syrup and has wide potential for preparing jam, jelly etc. In eastern India, tender fruit is
popular as vegetable. Seeds of jackfruit can be used in many culinary preparations as boiled
or roasted item. The pulp can also be used in preparation of pickles, chips, de-hydrated
leather and thin papad. The rind is rich in protein and major protein has been extracted as
“jacalin”. Jack timber is valuable for making furniture’s as it is rarely attacked by white ants.
The leaves and skin of fruits are a good source of cattle feed. The latex from the bark contains resins, and it is used to plug holes in earthen vats and buckets. The skin and core of the fruits, could be used commercially for pectin extraction.
Jack tree grows well not only in humid and warm climates of hill slopes but also in arid plains of south India, making it as one of the most suitable fruit crops for dry land horticulture. It is found largely in southern states viz
a.3 Benefits of jackfruit
Jackfruit has a lot of benefits. Its fruits are widely harvested for many uses. Like making a soup, or eaten freshly. The seeds are nutritious, rich in potassium, fat, carbohydrates, and minerals. They are ingredients for many culinary preparations. The seeds are eaten after boiling or roasting, or dried and salted as table nuts, or ground to make flour which is blended with wheat flour for baking. All parts of jackfruits also can be use as traditional medicine. The roots can be used for skin disease, asthma. The flowers is use for stop bleeding in open wounds. The seeds can cure dysentery, and many more.
a.4 climates and ecology
For optimum production, jackfruit requires warm, humid, climates and evenly distributed rainfall of at least 1500 mm (Balthazar, 1984; Concepcion, 1990). Growth will be retarded if rainfall is less than 1000 mm. Jackfruit trees are not resistant of continuously wet and/or flooded soil conditions and trees may decline or die after 2-3 days of wet soil conditions. For the production of jackfruit the annual rainfall should be 1000-2400 mm or more. Although it thrives in a moist tropical climate jackfruit is adapted To a wider range of conditions. It is tolerant of lower temperatures, And indeed mature trees are reported to have survived a Temperature of -3º C in Florida. The leaves of the tree may be Damaged at 0º C, branches at -1º C, and branches and trees may be Killed at -2º C. The trees are tolerant of mild to moderately windy Conditions. They have been observed to survive and recover from Hurricane force winds when some branches have been damaged.
A.5 condition that needed to graft
Material for grafting can be a cocopit or coconut fiber powder, or we can used a dirt mixed with compost. Time of performing is better at the starts of rainy season. So that the grafting will not get dry. Also with grafting in rainy season will gave us time to plant the result of the grafting.
- B. Theoretical framework.
Why grafting can be done?
It because grafting is a process to make a new plant. When the plant is covered with dirt, the part that has been graft will automatically search any food in the dirt. Because they want to survive. And the result is the plant grow new root from it. After the root has grow big and strong enough, we can cut the under part of the grafted location and start plant the new plant.
Grafting is more useful than seed. Because grafted plants is produce fruit more fast than the seed plants. And it keep the quality of the fruit from the mother.
- C. Hypothesis
From all information above we have hypothesis like:
- grafting has many benefits than any other cultivation ways.
- Grafting is more useful than any other cultivation ways.
Methodology of research
1.1 Methodology of research
Methodology that has been used is descriptive method. With purpose to learn and understand whole steps for graft.
2.2 Population and sample
2.2.1 Population Of research
The populations of the research are the whole 50 plants in pasir mukti.
2.2.2 Sample of research
Sample of the research are 3 plants from 50 plants in pasir mukti
2.3 variable of the research
Variable of this research is about the root, condition of dirt, and condition of plants that have been grafted. If the grafting success, the root that grown must strong and not in sick. The condition of the dirt must fresh and full of the nutrients that the plant need. Condition of the plant must healthy.
2.4 Tools and material
Tools that needed to graft are:
- Sterile Knife
- Transparent plastic
- Plastic tape
- Grafting medium
- Jackfruit tree
- Jackfruit plants
- Dirt mixed with compost
2.5 experimental of study
2.6 time and place of research
time of the research is in 13th November 2010. The place of the research is in pasir mukti.
2.7 procedure of the research
For doing this research about cultivate jackfruit by grafting, I used two kind of technics, observation and interview. To know more information about grafting.
2.7.1 Stage of the research
This research is started from distribution task by advisor in school and guide to make scientific writing from headmaster. The writer choose a title about cultivation plants by grafting and how to do it with jackfruit. Next, the writer is guided by headmaster in several ways in classical about making scientific writing. Report that hopefully can fulfill all scientific writing criteria .
- A. Discussion
A.1 objective of grafting
The objective of grafting is to reproduce faster than natural vegetative ways, and reproduce more fruit in short time
Condition that needed to graft are the dirt must fresh and the plants must old and in good condition.
Steps of grafting
- Choose the parent tree of jackfruit
- Put the cocopit into the transparent plastic
- Choose a branch towards above cause the branch has a good condition. Not to young and not to old
- Give it a cut under the bud eye. Then peeling its skin. There is a cambium slime layer after the branch peeled. The slime layer must be cleaned. If not, the section that has been peeled will grow new skin.
- After cleaning the cambium layer, wait until its dry for 1 to 2hours
- After dry, cocopit is attached to cambium stem then tied at the above and the bottom. It must tied correctly or the graft is failed. Treatment is done by watering 2 times a day, in the morning and afternoon.
- After 2 or 3 months, the new plants will grow strong root and ready to cut.
- B. Day caring
For treat the grafted plant, we must keep the plant wet and fresh. By watering the plant twice a day. Morning and Afternoon. If not the grafting will failed and it will die. And
- C. Cultivation plants
Cultivate plants can be done every year. Like grafting, grafting can be done every year if the water is possible. But it’s not so perfect to, like it has weak root. That’s why it can fall down easily. And it very vulnerable to disease attack. So but is the fastest and the efficient way to have a good plants with it. So, grafting is not perfect way but not to bad either.
- A. Conclusion
From this scientific writing, it is show that grafting is the efficient way to cultivate plants. And it gives many benefits than generative way. And it can be a good way to cultivate plants without cost many budgets.
- B. Suggestion
The community must know and understand more of grafting and any other cultivation ways for future use in marketing and gardening.
- C. Implication
From all description above, the writer get implication : with make this research, the observer can learn and understand more about cultivation ways like grafting jackfruits, and all benefits from it. And understand how to make a better scientific writing.