Dengan Nama Allah Yang Maha Pengasih Lagi Maha Penyayang

In The Name of Allah, The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful

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Please Contact Us for Any Information to Our New Phone Number (021) 8778 5588 We will Serve you Better. PANGLIMA BESAR SOEDIRMAN, International Islamic Junior High School (PBS-IIJHS) Jl. Raya Bogor Km. 24, Cijantung East Jakarta

GOOD COW CULTIVATION TECHNIQUES TO INCREASE MILK PRODUCTIVITY

GOOD COW CULTIVATION TECHNIQUES TO INCREASE MILK PRODUCTIVITY

 

By:

 

NADIRA PUTRI PINASTHIKAN

Number: 9980265163

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

 

  1. Background of Study

One of the livestock with the most big population in Indonesia or in the world is cow (Bos Taurus). Cow consists of some varieties such as dairy cow and beef cattle. Dairy cow is the member of Bovidae familia and Bovinae subfamillia (www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sapi). Cow produces about 50% (45%-55%) beef need world, 95% milk need and 85% skin need (www.infokebun.wordpress. com/2008/06/10/budidaya-sapi-perah/). But, the other products of cow are the horn and the innards (www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sapi). This cow is the offspring of wild type as known as Auerochse or Urochse (in Jerman means “ancient cow”, sciencetific name: Bos primigenius) (www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sapi). Dairy cow is not use as milk and meat producer, but their energy can be use for helping priracy ricefield and as the traditional transportation in some villages.

Diary cow is special cow that maintained for producing milk. Usually, the farmer chooses female cow to be their dairy cow. This dairy cow is popular in Indonesia. This cow is use for fulfilling the milk need in Indonesia or in the world. This cow still include in Bos taurus. Actually, dairy has the other type based on the habitat such as Frisian Holstein that comes from Grati.

Cow cultivation technique has some steps. First step is preparation the equipments, such as cage and etc. Second step is nursery. Third step is maintaining. The milk productivity in Indonesia is not too high. But, West Europe has a very high milk productivity. Milk productivity of a diary cow is be affected by weather, feed, environment, and accuracy in treatment. The feed of dairy cows are green fresh grasses that grow in West Europe and in Indonesia. But, with the low accuracy in the treatment and the bad weather are very iinfluencing to the milk productivity.

Based on the statement above, the function of this research is to know the good cow cultivation technique to increase the milk productivity.

B.Identification of Study

Based on the background of study above, we can find some problems, there are:

1. What kind of food that Indonesian cow produce that can be use by the citizen?

2. What type of cow those include in dairy cow group?

3. What is the technique that influencing to milk productivity?

  1. What is the factor that influencing to milk productivity?

 

C.        limition of Study

I have to make this research is more specific and not getting out from the problems in the title, so this we limit this problems by some identification in the third and the fourth i.e:

  1. The techniques that influencing to milk productivity.
  2. The factors that influencing to the milk productivity level.

D.        Formulation of Study

Based on the background, the identification, and the limitation of study, so the formulations of study are:

1. What is the technique that influencing to milk productivity?

  1. What is the factor that influencing to milk productivity?

E.       Purpose of Reserach

The purposes of this research are:

  1. To know the technique that influencing to milk productivity
  2. To know the factors that influencing to milk productivity

F.         Benefits of Research

The benefits of this research are:

  1. Know the technique that influencing to milk productivity
  2. Know the factors that influencing to milk productivity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER II

THEORY STUDY/LITERATURE REVIEW

  1. Theory Study

a.1   The Guidance of Cow Cultivation Technique

A. Preparation tools and equipments

The cage can be forms in 2 type, that is in double cage or single cage, depands on the number of the cows. In the single cage, the cows are place in one line or one range, meanwhile in the double cage, the cows are plce in two ranges, line of sight or conflicting. Between two ranges, usually the farmer makes a lane for walking.

Making the cage for fattening usually, the type of cage is single cage if the number of the cows is little. But, if fattening activity is intended for comersial, the size of the cage has to bigger and wider so it can accommodate more cows.

The floor of the cage has to always clean to prevent many diseases. The floor made of solid ground and cement, and it’s easy to clean it from the cow’s feces. Ground floor is coated with dry hays as the base warm cage.

All of the parts of the cage and equipments that ever used has to be cleaning by disinfectant, like creolin, lysol, and the others liquids.

The size of the cage that made for a adult male cow is 1,5x2 meters or 2,5x2 meters, while for the adult female cow is 1,8x2 meters and for the little cow is 1,5x1 meters per cow, with the heights are 2-2,5 meters from the ground. The temperature around the cage is 25-40°C (around 33°C) and the humid is 75%. The location of the treatment can be place in low plain (100-500 m) until high plain (>500 m).

 

B. Nursery
The terms for the “seed” adult female dairy cow are: (a) High milk production, (b) age 3,5-4,5 years and already have a baby cow, (c) comes from a female and male that has high milk production offspring, (d) the shape of the body is like wedge, (e) the eyes are shining, the back is straight, the shape of the head is good, the distance of the front feet and the back feet are wide enough and strong, (f) the udder is big enough, the linkage in the body pretty good, if we touch it, it’s soft, soft skin, has mnay milk veins, long, and serpentine, the nipples are not more than 4, they are in the symmetrical square and not too short, (g) The body is health and not the carier of communicable disease, and (h) every year, they has child.


Meanwhile the good prospective parents are: (a) comes from a female and male that has high milk production offspring, (b) the head and the neck are little bit long, the shoulder are sharp, the body is long enough, the back and the hip are flat, the inside chest and hip are wide, (c) the distance of the front feet and the back feet are wide enough, (d) the growth of the udder and the nipple are good, (e) the number of nipples are not more than 4 and the place are symmetrical, and (f) Healthy and not disability.


The good males that fulfill the terms are: (a) age around 4-5 years, (b) has high fertility, (c) the power to down the characteristic are high, (d) comes from a good females and a good males, (e) the size of the body is suit to the age, strength, and has many good male characteristics, (f) the head is wide, the neck is big, the waist is wide, and the back is strong, (g) the face is little bit long, the shoulder are little bit sharp and wide, (h) the thigh are flat and separated enough, (i) the chest is wide and the distance between the ribs are pretty wide, (j) the body is long, the chest is deep, the chest circumference and the stomach circumference is big, and (k) healthy, free from the communicable diseases and not down a disability to the offspring.

  1. 1) Selection the seed and the parental


To catch a high livestock productivity, we needed corrections in the environment and the improvement of the livestock genetic quality.

The “seed” that just arrived has to be carantine for spreading disease. Then, the baby cow has given water that mix with salt, palce in the clean cage and weighed and the farmer take a note about the look.

2) Treatment of the seed and the parental


All of the dairy cows that not show the sign of pregnancy after a selection periode, has to separated. If the separated cow already produce good milk, he farmer select back based on the milk production.

C. Maintenance

  1. Sanitation and Preventive Reaction 


In the maintenance, the cows are caging intensively, so the farmer is easy to protect them. The dairy cow that maintained in the room has higher conception (19%) and the milk production (11%) more than in the outside. A sick seed has to be treated immediately.

  1. Livestock Treatments 


The livestocks are taking a shower every 2 days. All of the parentals are taking a shower everyday after the cage is already clean and before milking. The cage has to be cleaning everyday, so the feces can be form to fertilizer. A adult dairy cow has to be weighed every 3 months, but for the baby cow has to be weighed every 1 week.

  1. Giving Feed 

Giving feeds to the cows can be done with 3 steps, i.e. :

a)   Pasture fattening

b)   Dry lot fattening

c)   Combination the first step and the second step

Feed that has been giving are grasses and concentrate. The grasses are hays, sugarcane’s leaves, lamtoro, alfalfa, elephant grass, Benal grass or King grass. Grasses are giving in the afternoon after milking, it’s about 30-5-kg/cow/day.
The lactation cow needs more feed about 25% grasses and concentrate. The feed should be added with beans. The carbohydrate are soft bran, or bran, tofu dregs, dreid cassava, and coconut cake and mineral (as the stronger) such as salt, chalk and etc. Giving feed with concentrate should be in the morning and in the evening before milking, it’s abou 1-2 kg/cow/day.

Beside feed, the cows has to get drink about 10% from their weight per day. The main treatment is giving enough feed and drink, and keep the cleaness of the cage.

 

  1. Cage Maintenance

The cow’s feces are backfilling in the others places, so I will through fermentation process about 1-2 weeks and I will be changed into good and done fertilizer. The dairy cow needs many circulations’ in their cage, so it should not be closed. The drinking water has to always available in their cage. The cow’s dining and drinking places should be making in the outside of the cage but still under the roof. The dining is making little bit higher, so the cows never steps on their feeds and the feeds never mixes up with their feces. The drinking place should be making permanent like a cement basin and little higher than the floor. The farmer should the equipments to take cow shower.

a.2 Factors of Milk Productivity

When a cow gets a lactation period, in the first lactation period milk production and the next is very influencing by some factors such as genetic factor, feed, and treatment.

Genetic Factor

genetic factor is individual, that down from the parental and the father to the offspring. This factor will determine the number of production and the quality of the milk when the cow is in lactation period. If the milk production of female and male are bad, so the best treatment and the feed are never can corrected the bad production.

Feed Factor

The cows that has good genetic will give good milk production too. But, if the feed that has been giving are bad, the milk production will be bad too. If the cow is run out of the feed that has to mobilized, so the milk production will decress and finally will limit the milk secretion.

Treatments Factor

Good and perfect treatmeants are one of the effort to get success in dairy cattle business. Treatmeants factor is the important factor too, cause not just genetic can be influencing the milk productivity, but the treatmeants too. A good genetic factor has been supported too with good treatmeants too.

B.Theoritical Framework

I think, I agree with the theory above. These cow cultivation techniques are very correct with our needed. Even thought it’s simple but it still follows the procedure. The techniques are complete and environmentally friendly. I think, this technique are not harming for the owner or for the cows.

And then, factors of milk productivity are reality because it’s already tested. I’m sure; with this theory study about the factors of milk productivity will help many farmers.

  1. Hypothesis

Based on the formulation of study above, appear some hypothesises i.e.:

  1. Cow cultivation technique with preparation, and nursery and cage maintenance that appropriate with the theory study will increase the milk productivity
  2. Genetic factor, feed factor and treatmeant factor are influencing to the milk productivity

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER III

METODOLOGY OF RESEARCH

1. Methodology of Research

The method that I used to make this report is explorative method means digging. So, in the making of this report, I digged much informations from many sources like internet, book, and etc. With the purporse is to dig about dairy cow cultivation technique that influencing to milk productivity

2. Population and Sample

2.1. Population of research

Research populations in this research are dairy cows in BPPT Cikole, Lembang, Bandung.

2.2. Sample of Research

Method that I used in determining this sample is sample random sampling means choose randomly.

  1. 3. Variable of Reserach

Variable X in this research is cow cultivation technique and variable Y in this research is milk productivity.

  1. Time and Place of Research

Time and place of research I did was on 13rd-14th August 2009 in BPPT Cikole, Lembang, Bandung.

  1. Procedure of Research

5.1.         Collecting Data

5.1.1 Observation

We did observation to get the data we need with visiting to a place that connected to ur report, and then usually, did a interview with the sources.

5.1.2 Interview

Interview is one of way to get the data we need. Interview is discussing between 2 persons, they are the interviewer and the sources.

6.1.   Data Analysis

6.1.1. Qualitative Analysis

This analysis is assessed not from number side, material, and etc. This analysis is about cow cultivation technique and others variables like free variable and tight variable.

6.1.2. Quantitative Analysis

This analysis is assessed from the number side and material such as cow’s ages, the number of the cow cultivation technique, the number of milk per day, and etc.

 

 

 

CHAPTER IV

RESULT OF RESEARCH AND DISCUSSING

 

  1. Variable that Investigated

From the title of this report, there are free variable and tight varianle. Free variable is variable that influencing the tight variable positively or negatively (http://www.scribd.com/doc/28855938/Variabel-penelitian). Free variable that I found in the title of this report is “Milk Productivity”

If there are free variable in a title, so in that title there are tight variable too. Tight variable is variable that to be the main attention for the researcher (http://www.scribd.com/doc/28855938/Variabel-penelitian). Tight variable in the title of this report is “cow cultivation technique”.

B.Hypothesis Calibration

Based on the hypothesis that I wrote before, I did a research first about cow cultivation technique. Evidently, technique that used in BPPT Cikole are very guarantee to make milk productivity higher than before. Technique that BPPT Cikole did are very recommended. They divided the technique based on the age of the cow. The technique that they didi to the baby cow and adult cow are different. Evidently, adult cow in BPPT Cikole were divided into 4 type such dairy cow, old cow, pregnant cow, and cattle.

Usually, baby cow and the pregnant cow needs more special treatment than cattle or dairy cow or old cow. Based on the feed, that cows receives the same feed, that is grasses and leaves. But the number of their feed are different. Baby cow need less than the adult cow.

After I thorough, adult female cow poruce mile more than male cow. But, in the meat aspect, male meats are better than female cow.So, If you want to produce baby cow with good quality meat and good quality milk, you have to wed the female cow with more milk production and male cow with good quality meat. The child of that couple, will has high milk production and good quality meat

The conclusion from the hypothesis calibration I did in BPPT Cikole is that good cow cultivation technique can increase the milk productivity. Cow is like a human, they are very sensitive. If we make a mistake, the cow ill be stress and feel disturb with our exixtence. So, finnaly that cow will be sick and produce anti-biotic milk. It means that the milk is contain anti-biotic and that milk can’t be consume.

  1. Result Discussion

Based on the hypothesis calibration, I think that my hypothesis can be accepted. Because after we investigated that statement, it is true that cow cultivation technique is influencing to the milk productivity. The descission that I took, are not just based on the hypothesis calibration, but from the procedure in making this report, such as collecting data, hypothesis, formulation, and etc.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER V

CLOSING

A.   Formulation of Study

Based on the background, the identification, and the limitation of study, so the formulations of study are:

1. What is the technique that influencing to milk productivity?

2. What is the factor that influencing to milk productivity?

  1. Hypothesis

Based on the formulation of study above, appear some hypothesises i.e.:

  1. Cow cultivation technique with preparation, and nursery and etc that appropriate with the theory studywill increase the milk productivity
  2. Genetic factor, feed factor and treatmeant factor are influencing to the milk productivity
    1. Conclusion

Based on the discussion above, it can be concluded that:

  1. It is prove that feed factor, treatment factor is influencing to milk productivity about 30% while the genetic factor is about 70%.
  2. Happen differences of taste, smell, quality, and the number of mil in the some cows that need different technique. Means that cow cultivation technique inluencing to milk productivity.

 

  1. Suggestion

From the report above, we can take some suggestions, there are:

  1. You should give the best treatments and protection to the cows eventhought feed factor and treatment factor just 30%
  2. You should wed the cow who has good quality of milk and with the cow who has good quality of meat.

 

  1. Implication
  2. It will appear some cows who will produce bad milk with the bad treatmeans
  3. It will be prove that if we cow get the best treatmean will produce good milk too

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  1. http://www.google.co.id/#q=Teknik+budidaya+sapi+perah&hl=id&prmd=ivns&psj=1&ei=6ooNTamdOInkrAefvLTnCw&start=10&sa=N&fp=5121cc330a3aa50d
  2. http://ohsapi.blogspot.com/ 
  3. http://www.google.co.id/#q=faktor+yang+mempengaruhi+produktivitas+susu+sapi+perah&hl=id&prmd=ivns&psj=1&ei=T68NTferEMfjrAfVr_G9Cw&start=10&sa=N&fp=5121cc330a3aa50d 
  4. http://www.google.co.id/#q=faktor+yang+mempengaruhi+produktivitas+susu+sapi+perah&hl=id&prmd=ivns&psj=1&ei=4q0NTYe_B8H_lgeJwehP&start=10&sa=N&fp=5121cc330a3aa50d 
  5. http://www.google.co.id/#q=produktivitas+susu+sapi+perah&hl=id&prmd=ivns&psj=1&ei=3qsNTeymD8GqlAfOsKzfCw&start=30&sa=N&fp=5121cc330a3aa50d 
  6. http://www.google.co.id/#sclient=psy&hl=id&site=&source=hp&q=produktivitas+susu+sapi&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai=&psj=1&fp=5121cc330a3aa50d 

CURRICULUM VITAE

Full name Nadira Putri Pinasthika. I was born in Jakarta, 12nd July 1998. My father’s name is H. Kunto Wibisono. My mother’s name is Hj. Tri Oetami. I was a student in Aulia School Playgroup (2001-2002), Al Jihad (2002-2004), and Soedirman Islamic Elementary School (2004-2009). Now, I’m grade 9 in PB Soedirman Islamic International Junior High School (2009-2011). Achievement I ever got, the best one student in boarding, the best poem in the one of a radio in Java, the best two school examination when I was in elementary school. My hobbies are making story, reading many comics, and watching TV.

I ever was yearbook committee in junior high school, the one of students who could join with Science and Math Olympiad, the best two ballerinas, the best one of quiz in my housing 3 times a row and etc.

 

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