# History of Math

**HISTORY OF MATH**

Mathematics started with counting. In about the 2000 BC’s, the Babylonians developed some mathematical ideas.

Number problems like the Pythagorean triples (discovered by Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans, his students) were studied from 1700 BC. Linear equations were studied to solve problems, as well as quadratic equations. These led to a kind of numerical algebra.

The Greeks studied similar figures, volume and area (geometry problems). Values were also determined for p .

The Babylonian’s mathematics passed on to the Greeks. From 450 BC on the Greeks studied and improved many kinds of mathematics.

The ancient Greeks discovered conic sections (circular shapes formed when cutting a cone at different angles). They also made many discoveries in astronomy and trigonometry.

While the Greeks’ greatest mathematical discoveries were occurring between 300 BC and 200 BC, mathematics was also making progress in Islamic countries, such as

Major work in mathematics in

During the seventeenth century, mathematicians made more and more progress towards calculus and added some algebraic methods to geometry.

The development toward calculus continued with the great mathematicians Pierre de Fermat. Together, with Blaise Pascal, they began the mathematical theory of probability. However, calculus evolved in the seventeenth century.

Two branches of mathematics were invented in the eighteenth century, the calculus of variations and number theory, which had begun with Fermat.

**Resource : ThInkquest.org**

MATH AT HOME

How much does it cost to light your house? This is a very practical use of math. The equation to calculate the cost of lighting is:

C = (W/1,000) ´ R ´ N

Where

C = cost of lighting the bulb

W = label on the bulb in watts (W)

R = rate of electricity that shows on your electric bill $ / KWH

N = number of hours of usage

Note: 1/1,000 means to convert watts to kilowatts

Bill’s mother bought a 100-W lightbulb for Bill’s room. He used the light about 4 hours per night. The electric rate in the city he lives in is $0.1 KWH. How much does his mother pay for the lighting bills for his room per month (30 days)?

C = (100/1,000) ´ ($0.1) ´ (4 ´ 30)

= $1.2

Bill’s mother must pay $1.20 for the light bill every month.

Bill's mother changed the lamp to a more efficient fluorescent light that shows 25-W on the label. By how much will the lighting bill change in a 30-day month?

Estimate the answer:

Less than 25¢

Between 25¢ and $1.00

Over $1.00

**Resource : ThInkquest.org**

# English Corner

Paijo’s Comment

Paijo is an office boy in a famous private Junior High School. One afternoon, he saw crowd of students and teachers in front of physic class. From the noise, he concluded there was an uncommon situation. For the first, Paijo didn’t care but when the vice headmaster, who was there too, waved his hand to him, he approached.

After examined, a window glass was broken. A student, who after finishing sport lesson kicked the ball and hit the window. (He supposed to carry the ball into storage).

For that school is accustomed to a democratic way, the vice headmaster asked the audiences’ comment.

Vice Headmaster : “What’s your comment audiences?”

Sport teacher : “It was a precise kick of professional football player”

Physic teacher : “The ball movement was an example of ballistic or missile movement “

Chemist teacher : “Glass mess before and after broken was the same”

Mathematic teacher : “The ball track must be a curve of parabola.”

Vice Headmaster : Good! What about you Pak Sugih?

Pak Sugih (Economic teacher) : To replace the broken window we need one hundred thousand rupiah.

Vice Headmaster : No problem we can ask the parents of the student who kicked the ball. What’s your comment, Paijo?

Paijo (starled) : Hm… according to my economic point of few, the accident made me work harder without any increasing salary.

Teachers : ????

The age of ancient skull

When a skull of ancient human was excavated from Sangiran valley, a group of scientists was difficult to decide the age.

Many kinds of laboratory tests had been done with many kinds of technique and modern equipments. After six months without any result, the intelligent chairman heard about it and order his people to take over the problem. Three days later, proudly he told the scientists that the skull was Phallus Erectus with the age of 25,141 years, 6 months and 3 days. The group of scientists were astonished and asked him : “ How can you find the name and the age of skull easily, while we, that nota bene, are experts could do nothing?”

The officer answered: “ Well, it was true that my people hands were bruised and the skull was too. For the first it was difficult for us but after several times, the skull couldnot stand it anymore and he admitted his name and age.

Scientists : ???

Vomiting

In a bus, a teenager wearing a big hat, sits besides an old woman. The old woman seems to have nausea, she massages her forehead.

Teenager : What happened madam? Are you okay? You look pale, are you dizzy?

Old woman : Yes, I’m dizzy. I have headache and stomachache. Seems I want to vomit.

Teenager : Be careful, madam. Do you want some warm tea?

Old woman : No, thank you. But can I see your face?

Teenager : Of course, but why?

Old woman : It helps me to vomit faster

Teenager : ???

Minister of Health visit Lunatic Asylum

A minister of health department visited a lunatic asylum (mental hospital) and asked one of the patients.

Minister : “How’re you? Are you happy here?

Patients : Yes, sir, hooray! We are happy

Minister : Did you behave good?

Patient : Yes, sir. Because we are good, the head of this hospital made us a swimming pool, complete with the sliding board. We are allowed to use it in turn, and if we behave better, he promised to fill the pool with water!

Minister : ???

EYP TN

# Thanks

**Special Thanks to**

**Parents Team of Homestay Program in Aussie**

On behalf of principal of PB. Soedirman, International Islamic Junior High School (PBS-IIJHS), East Jakarta – Indonesia, we would like to say thank you very very much to all our parents team of Homestay program in Aussie, 20 October – 1 November 2010, who had helped and facilitated us for everything such as: passport, ticketing, budgeting, visa, transportation, meals, time, mind, energy, etc. For all your efforts, God Allah will be kind with you forever.

We absolutely believe that without parents team helping and facilitation to us, this program was impossible can be running as we hope. We believed that the friendships and awareness that arise from international programs can enhance relationships and offer substantial benefits to all participants – staff, students, parents, and the wider education community.

Also, we believed that this visit is very important for stepping our educational network.

We are committed to raising upstanding and responsible citizens of tomorrow who will hold

universal values in a globally and technologically advancing society.

Hopefully, this visit is the opening gate for our cooperation in developing educational services to all our students here. Finally, please our parents team pardon us if we have any mistakes and guilties in conducting this program.

Warmest regards,

Nur Alam,

Principal of PB. Soedirman, International Islamic Junior High School (PBS-IIJH), East Jakarta.

# ta'niah

DOA MOHON DI BERIKAN KEMUDAHAN DALAM BELAJAR

**اَللّهُمَّ اجْعَلْنِي فِي كُلِّ الْاِمْتِحَانِ مِنَ النَّاجِحِيْنَ**

“ Ya Allah Jadikanlah aku di dalam setiap ujian termasuk orang-orang yang lulus.”